Hacking meaning and examples and types of hackers

Let’s speak about hacking today: what it is, what it means, how it’s done, how to avoid it, and what different kinds of hackers there are. When you hear the word “hacker,” what images or ideas spring to mind? Read the article in its entirety to learn about hacking and how to avoid being hacked, as you may be shocked to learn that there are many different kinds of hackers.

What is hacking?

what is hacking

Hack is to use some sort of technology or technical expertise to solve an issue. Keep in mind that the illustrative meaning of “intentional hacking” excludes any illegal activity. Despite the common perception that all hackers are criminals or security threats, this is only a small fraction of the field of hacking.

This article includes:

  1. hacking defined
  2. What are the three types of hackers?
  3. common types of hacking
  4. Where does hacking come from?
  5. Is hacking illegal?
  6. Most vulnerable tools for hacking
  7. hacking and social media
  8. How to know if you have been hacked
  9. Tips to prevent getting hacked
  10. protect yourself against hacking

While there are many forms of espionage, computer hacking will be the subject of this article. There are two possible definitions of hacking in this context, depending on whom you ask:

  1. A hacker is typically a highly proficient coder who lives and breathes the world of computers and software.
  2. However, many of us associate hackers with dishonest people who bypass safeguards to access systems. Whenever you hear the word “hacker” in the media, that’s what they mean.

Criminal sabotage of a security system by hackers is known as “cracking” in the traditional hacker lingo, analogous to a bank robber opening a safe. What, then, is a hacker? A hacker is a person who uses their knowledge of computers to find a solution to an issue.

How many types of hackers are there?

There are three categories of hackers—black hats, white hats, and gray hats—depending on their intentions while breaking security measures. Let’s take a look at each of them and see what makes them unique.

Black-hat hackers

The shady cybercriminal described above is an example of a black-hat hacker. They are trying to break into a computer or network by penetrating its cyber defenses. A black-hat hacker will either take advantage of a security flaw themselves or make other hackers aware of it for a fee.

The majority of the time, a black-hat hacker’s end goal is financial gain. This may be accomplished through outright theft, the sale of stolen data, or blackmail. On other occasions, though, they seek just to wreak maximum havoc.

White-hat hackers

A white-hat hacker is the opposite of a black-hat hacker. They have the same level of expertise, but instead of using it for evil, these good people use it to strengthen the digital defenses of enterprises. A white hat hacker is someone who, with the owner’s permission, will try to get into a system in order to fix any vulnerabilities they find. “Ethical hacking” is another term for this line of activity.

As part of their company’s overall cyber security policy, many white-hat hackers work within huge corporations. Others provide their expertise as independent security auditors for hire. Employees can be put through phishing tactics meant to secure login credentials, which goes above and beyond traditional penetration testing (which evaluates the strength of a cyber security system).

Grey-hat hackers

In the middle are the gray-hat hackers. While not as committed to criminal activity as white-hat hackers, black-hat hackers are also not the paragons of philanthropy that white-hat hackers are. In contrast to white hats, who seek authorization before conducting vulnerability assessments, gray hats jump directly to exploiting the system.

Some people operate as gray-hat mercenaries, actively seeking out companies to exploit for financial gain. Some hackers use it to make a company take precautions against a risk it otherwise might not. In 2013, Facebook was the victim of a gray hat attack after the company ignored security warnings and was eventually hacked.

development of hacking

These days, the term “hacker” is almost always associated with something unpleasant, such as cybercriminals out to steal information or spread malicious software.

It wasn’t always like this. In reality, hackers were at first seen as tech enthusiasts whose only goal in life was to experiment and learn new things. Traditional hackers didn’t mix with those with malevolent purposes, and public opposition to hacking didn’t begin until decades later, with the advent of viruses and cybercrime.


The word “hack” has an interesting history unconnected to computing. Instead, it all started in 1961, when members of MIT’s Tech Model Railroad Club began tinkering with their high-tech train models in an effort to make them more suitable for their needs. Later, they hopped on the computer toy train, employing MIT’s elusive and pricey IBM 704 to come up with novel ideas, establish new standards, and seek to broaden the capabilities of the machine.

These MIT students, like other novice hackers, were eager to learn more about the software they were using and how it could be enhanced. The Unix operating system, created by Dennis Ritchie and Keith Thompson, is one example of a program that was improved by hacking.


The 1970s saw a continuation of computer hacking, but they also saw the rise of a new type of hacker: those who hacked into telephone networks. John Draper and other notorious phone hackers took advantage of vulnerabilities in the electronic telephone switching network.

Legend has it that Draper found the perfect tone (2600 Hz) for signaling to long lines that a line was ready and routing a new call in a toy whistle included in a box of Cap’n Crunch cereal. could be had. Because of this, he and other weirdos could spoof the network and make free long-distance phone calls.

Not only did the hacker subculture of “hackers” pave the path for significant figures like Draper, but it also paved the road for digital pioneers. When Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs first met, they were just two regular guys who were really into phones.


The 1980s were a pivotal decade for hacking since that’s when everyone finally got their hands on affordable, ready-to-use personal computers. Computers were no longer the exclusive property of corporations and illustrious educational institutions; instead, they were made available to everyone who wanted to use them for their own ends. Naturally, there was a meteoric rise in the number of hackers as personal computers became widely available.

However, this wasn’t the only radical shift taking place in the world of hacking. While there were still plenty of hackers whose main motivation was to mess with the OS, a new generation emerged that was motivated primarily by financial gain. They didn’t use their expertise to help enhance computers; rather, they engaged in illegal activities like software piracy, virus creation, and data theft.

The legal system’s response was swift. In 1986, the federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act was the first piece of legislation to address hacking.

At the same time, it was around this time that the concept of hackers as digital saviors who could do both good and evil began to appear in the public consciousness. The idea was popularized by a number of books and films, the most well-known of which is perhaps War Games (1983), in which a suburban teenager discovers a backdoor in a military central computer and nearly begins World War III.


Following the dramatic shifts of the 1980s, hacking gained widespread attention in the 1990s. As “crackers” (malicious hackers) committed more and more cybercrimes, the term “hacker” became pejorative due to the widespread media coverage of their arrests.

Some of the most famous crackers of the decade are Kevin Mitnick, Kevin Poulsen, Robert Morris, and Vladimir Levin. These men stole valuable software from high-profile companies and were eventually apprehended and sentenced to prison. Inundation of stations. Starting the first digital bank and the first computer worm.

Also fractured in this decade was the once-tightly linked hacker community. The Secret Service has been conducting sting operations, dawn raids, and the arrest of multiple hackers in an effort to reduce cybercrime. In an effort to avoid prosecution, hackers have begun sharing information in exchange for protection.


In the 2000s, harmful hacking attempts continued to dominate headlines, smearing the reputation of ethical hackers.

There was a rise in new and perilous hacking techniques that afflicted government agencies and large corporations. Massive denial-of-service attacks were launched against Microsoft, eBay, Yahoo!, and Amazon, while a 15-year-old boy broke into the computer systems of the Defense Department and the International Space Station.


Now that we live in the digital age, the hacking community has evolved into something much more complex, clever, and detailed.

There are still individuals and small groups of hackers operating in every nook and cranny of the web, either modifying software or launching ransomware and Wi-Fi attacks at the drop of a hat. However, “hacktivist” groups like Anonymous have stepped into the spotlight this decade, exposing government secrets and exposing vigilantes who seek to damage, exploit, or conceal information from the public. Crucial forms of digital crime. Information

Governments and organizations are rushing to tighten security, while tech firms make adjustments to their networks in response to hacktivists and cybercriminals. Hackers, both good and bad, are relentlessly one step ahead of cyber security professionals, improved systems, and innovative technologies.

Is hacking illegal?

If permission is given, then hacking is a cybercrime. White-hat hackers are required to disclose any vulnerabilities they discover and obtain permission from their targets before breaking into a system. Security hacking is forbidden here.

Those who hack into systems without permission are criminals. Black hats are always operating undercover; no one will ever be hacked by them if they know they are pursuing money or sensitive information. If the target of your hack decides to report you to the police after you’ve disclosed the attack, then even gray-hat hacking becomes risky.

If you are the target of a security breach, it goes without saying that you have committed a crime. Do not hesitate to notify authorities if you fall victim to a similar fraud or breach. You can aid in damage reduction and prevent future victims from becoming hacking targets.

The most vulnerable tools for hacking

What a competent hacker could achieve with enough time and materials is impossible to predict. The security of far too many global corporations is currently in the hands of a motivated hacker who will stop at nothing to breach their defenses.

However, when considering the various appliances found in a normal house or office, some are obviously easier targets than others. Your iPhone will hold up very well, but that won’t be the case for a lot of other consumer electronics. Some of the most dangerous gadgets include the following:

Smart devices

When compared to traditional computing devices like PCs and mobile phones, many IoT devices do not have the same level of built-in security. If a hacker has access to your data, they can use it to get into your smart network and relay their malicious code from device to device.


The number of people who don’t alter their router’s factory-issued username and password will surprise you. Perhaps you are among them. Hackers can test Wi-Fi networks to see if the logins shipped with those gadgets are still valid.


If you’re still using a standalone webcam, it’s just as susceptible to hacking as any other Internet-connected gadget. Rootkits, a sort of malware, put laptop users in danger because they provide hackers with unrestricted access to the computer, including the webcam. Taping over the lens with opaque tape is a safe bet.


Even though email isn’t technically a tool, it’s a popular target for hackers. Considering the frequency with which passwords are exposed in data breaches, reusing your email password across many accounts is like dancing for hackers.

social media

My account was compromised. This defense is a celebrity’s best buddy whenever something goes wrong on social media. A hacker can easily take over one of your accounts if you aren’t diligent with your passwords. Once inside, they’ll be able to post in your name, see restricted material, and interact with your connections.

Want to know if your email or social media accounts have been compromised? To check if your password has been compromised, use HackCheck. It’s free.

How often is it possible to hack into a social media account? You can get a list of Facebook hacking tools if you Google “facebook hacking,” like I did when researching for this article. Naturally, we don’t want you to try this again or click on any of the links you discovered.

Instagram and Twitter hacking are very common forms of cybercrime. You should use a different password for every service you use, and Twitter’s help page for compromised accounts echoes this advice. A hacker who obtains one of them can only access one of your accounts.

How do you know if you have been hacked?

The telltale indicators of a breach might change from one incident to the next, depending on the software used. Here’s a quick rundown of some of the signs that a hacker may have gained access to one of your devices:

You’re Locked Out: A hacker can lock you out of your account even if they don’t steal your username and password by switching them. If two-factor authentication (2FA) is an option, it is strongly recommended that the password be changed promptly.

Your device is acting strange. Do you suddenly notice differences in how your computer or mobile device functions? Have you recently changed passwords, altered settings, downloaded unfamiliar files, or discovered odd modifications to existing files? Has someone turned off your virus protection? Is there a standalone app or application coming out soon? When you’re not using them, do your webcam and microphone stay active? A hacker may be the cause of any of these symptoms.

Getting Alerts from Family, Friends, and Coworkers If people you know and trust start telling you that they’re receiving suspicious communications from you, it’s time to change your passwords. It’s the same deal if something pops up in your social media stream that you didn’t put there. Those are two telltale indicators of a social media hack.

The Hacker Tells You: If you see a ransom note on your computer, it has been compromised. The hacker may make direct contact with you in order to alert you that they have gained unauthorized access to your data and/or compromised devices. However, keep in mind that any extortion effort may turn out to be a fake, especially if the hacker has not provided you with any proof of the dirt they claim to have on you.

Your browser is misbehaving. There are a plethora of browser-based hacking techniques. When you try to visit one page but are instead sent to another without your knowledge or consent, it’s a red flag that something shady is afoot. Keep an eye out for unfamiliar toolbars and add-ons, too. Malware is often at the root of such situations.

Someone’s Expenses or Stealing Your Money Contact your bank or credit card company immediately if you see charges appearing on your statement for items or services you did not purchase. Can A rapid decline in your money balance is the same. You can have your identity stolen because of a data breach perpetrated by hackers.

Tips to prevent getting hacked

Hackers are like lions: They go after prey that isn’t likely to put up much of a fight. Hackers are more likely to move on to an easier target if you take some quick preventative measures to make it more difficult for them to penetrate your upgraded defenses.

Use a unique password for every account. Only the account that was compromised will be accessible to the hacker. Even if they try that password on all of your other accounts, they won’t be successful if you’ve taken the time to make each one different and secure.

Update your software: Old programs provide security risks, while newer programs pose much less of a risk. Put everything from your hardware to your software on automatic update.

Don’t click on ads or strange links. “Malware” is an advertising strategy used by hackers. They can “drive-by download” malware onto your device from compromised websites in the same way. Only visit sites you know you can trust.

Look for HTTPS encryption: You can tell if a website is safe to use by looking for the HTTPS protocol. There will be a lock icon in your browser’s address bar and “HTTPS” at the beginning of the URL if the site is using this secure protocol. If a website only supports HTTP, you should not submit any sensitive information.

Change the default username and password on your router and smart devices: Put up at least one obstacle for hackers to overcome on their way to hacking into your home network. Changing your login credentials should be one of the first things you do when setting up a new router or smart device.

Don’t do anything personal on public computers; you should just utilize them for generic search purposes. Do not use this computer to access any private accounts, as it may be infected with spyware.

Protect yourself against hacking.

Now that you have this information, you may take measures to protect yourself from hackers in the long run. The following adjustments to your routine and software recommendations will greatly increase your security against hackers.

Hacking prevention tips

Download from first-party sources: That would be the App Store or Google Play for mobile devices. If you’re using a personal computer or portable device, this involves grabbing it from the maker’s site. Keep an eye out for optional add-ons during the installation of new programs. Don’t bother with it if you’re not allowed to uninstall the unnecessary extras.

Install antivirus software. There are many viruses that may be avoided with a competent antivirus program. You will be shielded from any number of harmful programs as well as other potential security risks, including out-of-date software, dangerous downloads, and misused applications. Pick a gadget that has the functions you’ll actually use and can accommodate all your gear.

Get and use a VPN. A virtual private network (VPN) creates an encrypted connection between your device and the outside world. When you connect your device to a VPN server, your data is encrypted so that only the VPN provider and you can decipher it. Use a trusted virtual private network (VPN) like Avast SecureLine VPN whenever you are on unprotected public Wi-Fi, such as in a cafe or shopping mall. If you don’t protect your information, anyone can access it.

Jailbreak your mobile device with extreme caution. Both iOS and Android have built-in security safeguards and restrictions designed to keep hackers out of mobile devices. However, there are individuals who would rather not be restricted and would rather have full access to their devices. If you’re serious about getting involved, arm yourself with knowledge. In addition to nullifying the warranty on your smartphone, jailbreaking leaves it wide open to intrusion.

Don’t log in as an administrator by default. You should change your account’s default rights to those of an ordinary user and only utilize the administrative capabilities when absolutely necessary. This will prevent the hacker from having free reign over your device if you happen to click on or download something dangerous.

Use a Password Manager: We have already emphasized the significance of using different passwords for each of your online accounts. Use a password manager instead of keeping a log of all these passwords, which is a terrible idea from a security perspective. You should only trust your digital keys to a password manager built by a trustworthy company, so take the time to find one. Also, look for one that can generate secure passwords and synchronize data across many devices.

Don’t store passwords in your browser. A password organizer built specifically for this purpose is more secure. You can get the same ease of use with significantly better security by installing a password manager as a browser extension that uses auto-fill.

Use two-factor authentication wherever you can. Two-factor authentication (2FA) is a great safety net. Put it to use on any of your online accounts, whether they be email, social media, or financial. Though some sophisticated phishing efforts have found ways to circumvent it, this security update is best avoided.

Lock down your online presence.The more personal information hackers can obtain about you, the better equipped they will be to steal your identity, guess your passwords, and commit fraud in your name. Make your social media accounts accessible exclusively to those in your immediate circle of friends and family by changing your Facebook privacy settings and Instagram security settings, for example. Also, ignore inquiries from people you don’t know. You should also be careful about logging into other services with your social media account. Having a separate account on the service will protect you from yet another potential hacking vector.

Read app permission requests closely:It’s not uncommon for app developers to be greedy and demand access to more information than is strictly necessary. Evaluate each app’s requests for access to your private data with caution and ask yourself if the developer is being overzealous. Apps that request access to your camera, contacts, microphone, or location without providing an explanation should raise red flags.

Brush up on anti-phishing techniques:Hackers frequently use phishing and pharming to get access to your personal information and online accounts. A frequent phishing strategy that can be unexpectedly effective is to ask you to verify or supply login credentials or other personal information. In addition, before providing any personal information, you should always verify the website’s currency. Make sure there are no typos or grammatical errors and that all pages, such as the terms and conditions and the contact us, are present and correct. Hackers who set up phony phishing websites frequently overlook such things.